Following this, several fluency-focused activities were conducted in an effort to automatize and encourage memory of the formulaic sequences. First in this task sequence was dictogloss, in which five key utterances from the transcript were dictated to the class. Following standard dictogloss procedures, the five utterances were read aloud to the class at normal speed, with a five-second delay between each piece. Learners jotted Links Of London Charms down what they could catch and worked in groups to reconstruct the text as accurately as possible. They referred back to the transcript to check their final products with the original. This was followed by a mingle activity, in which each learner was given a key utterance from the transcript and told to memorize it.
Then, each class member approached a classmate and recited his or her utterance until the classmate could recall it verbatim and vice versa. The two learners could then return to their seats and write down the utterance they had heard from the other. This continued until all members had collected all the distributed utterances through repeating and transcribing. The group then had the opportunity to check what they had written with the originals. Two other activities followed from these, both building on the awareness of formulaic sequences from the NS transcripts. The first of these was a chat circle, in which the class stood in two concentric circles, the inner circle facing outwards and the outer circle facing inwards so that learners were paired. Topics related to the speech model were then announced and the members of the pairs took go-second turns speaking about it.
After both members of the pairs had a chance to speak, they shifted partners and dealt with a new topic. The next activity was Nation’s (1989) four/three/two activity to boost fluency. Here, learners were to choose one of the three model speech sample topics and prepare a four-minute talk about it. After delivering this talk to a partner, they were required to give another talk using exactly the same content to another partner, but in a Links Of London Bracelets three-minute time, then shift again, and deliver it in two minutes. Learners followed all this activity with delivery of their talks in small groups, receiving feedback on fluency and formulaic sequences from their peers.
After this, learners recorded themselves describing their interests, contributions, and expected benefits from their careers. The instructor provided fluency and formulaic sequence-based feedback on these recordings.